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Indicators Decent Work

For some years the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has been developing indicators on “Decent Work”. The ILO has been doing a lot of research in that field lately and has, in addition, been developing draft indicators for a number of countries. The so-called “Tripartite Meeting of Experts”, held in September 2008, has developed a structure consisting of a list of statistical indicators on the one hand and a survey of the information on the legal framework necessary for the completion and the interpretation of the statistical information on the other. The aim is to provide a flexible framework in which the countries can put together and follow-up a set of indicators suitable for their own needs – and through which the mutual comparison of the data of the various countries remains possible. The list also contains an number of indicators which are still requiring further work. In the near future several definitions will have to be elaborated. Furthermore the data of a number of pilot countries ( one per region) will be collected in order to draw up a “decent work”-profile.

The presented indicators are subdivided into ten themes and four categories:
M(ain indicators): the core set of 18 preferential indicators
A(dditional indicators): may be used if available and significant
C(ontext information): indicators used in order to understand better other indicators within their proper socio-economic settings
F(uture indicators): not useful yet, need to be further developed
Furthermore information on the legal system is added to the indicators.

For the series below we start from the list submitted by the ILO to the de 18th International Conference of Labour Market Statisticians (November-December 2008). It isn’t a final list, many definitions aren’t invariable either . The list is merely a “state of affairs” in the debate, which can immediately be filled out on the basis of the indicators of our series that are available. The list also gives a number of paths for further development of the Belgian indicators.

Employment opportunities 

M – Employment-to-population ratio, 15-64 years IEB01 - Employment rate (XLS, 38 Ko) 
M – Unemployment rate IEC01 - Unemployment rate (XLS, 35 Ko) 
M – Youth not in education and not in employment, 15-24 years No data available
M – Informal employment IEA08 - Activity rate (XLS, 38 Ko) 
A – Labour force participation rate, 15-64 years IEA08 - Activity rate (XLS, 38 Ko) 
A – Youth unemployment rate,15-24 years IEQ07 - Unemployment rate of youth population (XLS, 37 Ko) 
A – Unemployment by level of education IEC03 - Unemployment rate by education level (XLS, 40 Ko) 
A – Employment by status in employment No data available
A – Proportion of own-account and contr. family workers in total
No data available
A – Share of wage employment in non-agricultural employment No data available
F – Labour underutilization IEL01 - Labour reserve (XLS, 42 Ko) 

Adequate earnings and productive work

M – Working poor IEO01 - Risk of poverty (XLS, 36 Ko) 
M – Low pay rate (below 2/3 of median hourly earnings) No data available
A – Average hourly earnings in selected occupations Indicator not clearly defined
A – Average real wages IEG17 - Gross average monthly wages by gender (XLS, 31 Ko) 
A – Minimum wage as % of median wage No data available
A – Manufacturing wage index No data available
A – Employees with recent job training (past year / past 4 weeks) (S) (13) IEF13 - Percentage of workers participating in training during the reference month (XLS, 33 Ko) 

Decent hours 

M – Excessive hours (more than 48 hours per week; ‘usual’ hours) No data available
A – Usual hours worked (standardized hour bands) IED16 - Actual, usual and contractual working time (XLS, 37 Ko) 
A – Annual hours worked per employed person No data available
A – Time-related underemployment rate No data available
F – Paid annual leave (developmental work to be done by the Office;
additional indicator)
Indicator not clearly defined

Combining work, family and personal life 

F – Asocial / unusual hours (Developmental work to be done by the Office) Indicator not clearly defined
F – Maternity protection (developmental work to be done by the Office; main indicator) Indicator not clearly defined

Work that should be abolished 

M – Child labour No data available
A – Hazardous child labour No data available
F – Other worst forms of child labour No data available
F – Forced labour No data available

Stability and security of work 

M – Stability and security of work (developmental work to be done by the Office) Indicator not clearly defined
A – Number and wages of casual/daily workers No data available
A – Equal opportunity and treatment in employment No data available
M – Occupational segregation by sex (19) IEE19 - Segregation index in occupations and sectors (XLS, 36 Ko) 
M – Female share of employment in ISCO-88 groups 11 and 12 (19a) No data available
A – Gender wage gap (n.a.) IEE22 - Difference between men's and women's average gross hourly earnings by education level (XLS, 32 Ko) 
A – Indicator for Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation) to be developed by the Office (n.a.) Indicator not clearly defined
A – Measure for discrimination by race / ethnicity / of indigenous people / of (recent) migrant workers / of rural workers where relevant and available at the national level IEE10 - Employment rate gap by nationality (XLS, 37 Ko)
IEE11 - Employment rate gap by country of birth (XLS, 38 Ko)
IEE16 - Unemployment rate gap by nationality (XLS, 38 Ko)
IEE17 - Unemployment rate gap by country of birth (XLS, 32 Ko) 
F – Measure of dispersion for sectoral / occupational distribution of (recent) migrant workers No data available
F – Measure for employment of persons with disabilities No data available

Safe work environment 

M – Occupational injury rate, fatal (21) IEJ01 - Industrial accidents (XLS, 39 Ko) 
A – Occupational injury rate, non-fatal (21a)  
A – Time lost due to occupational injuries (n.a.) No data available
A – Labour inspection (inspectors per 10,000 employed persons) No data available

Social security 

M – Share of population aged 65 and above benefiting from a pension No data available
M – Public social security expenditure (% of GDP) No data available
A – Health-care exp. not financed out of pocket by private households No data available
A – Share of population covered by (basic) health care provision No data available
F – Share of econ. active population contributing to a pension scheme No data available
F – Public expenditure on needs-based cash income support (% of GDP) No data available
F – Beneficiaries of cash income support (% of the poor) No data available
F – Sick leave (developmental work to be done by the Office; additional indicator) Indicator not clearly defined

Social dialogue, workers’ and employers’ representation 

M – Union density rate (S) (26) No data available
M – Enterprises belonging to employer organization [rate] No data available
M – Collective bargaining coverage rate (S) (28) No data available
M – Indicator for Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining) to be developed by the Office (30) Indicator not clearly defined
A – Strikes and lockouts/rates of days not worked [interpretation issues] No data available

Economic and social context for decent work 

C – Children not in school (% by age) No data available
C – Estimated % of working-age population who are HIV positive No data available
C – Labour productivity (GDP per employed person, level and growth rate) IEG03 - Labour productivity (XLS, 29 Ko) 
C – Income inequality (percentile ratio P90/P10, income or consumption) No data available
C – Inflation rate (CPI) No data available
C – Employment by branch of economic activity IEB06 - Share of employment by sector Nace (XLS, 42 Ko) 
C – Education of adult population (adult literacy rate, adult secondary-school graduation rate) IEF01 - Educational attainment level of adults (XLS, 50 Ko) 
C – Labour share in GDP No data available
C (additional) – Real GDP per capita in PPP$ (level and growth rate) No data available
C (additional) – Female share of employment by industry (ISIC tabulation category) IEB06 - Share of employment by sector Nace (XLS, 42 Ko) 
C (additional) – Wage / earnings inequality (percentile ratio P90/P10) No data available


FPS Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue